In addition to stunning landscapes and honest locals, Vietnam's 4000-year culture with all ups and down has been such a hit with tourists wishing to explore the unique and diversified culture of over 50 ethnic minority groups throughout the country. Check it out to see where you can take a deeper understanding of Vietnam culture and custom. Read on to see amazing suggestions for your Vietnam culture tours in 2019.
1. Highlights of Vietnam Culture and Custom
With 54 ethnic minorities, Vietnam attracts foreigners to explore the unique and diversified culture with a lot of festivals, rituals and customs. For example, be home to many tribal groups such as H’ Mong, Tay, and Dao, Sapa is a perfect place for an authentic rural experience of the tribal people in Vietnam. You will get closer to their daily life by visiting their local villages like Ta Van and Cat Cat, following them to the terraces, or going to the local market and even visiting their houses, trying to make their local dishes and enjoying the specialties such as dried-buffalo meat, wine, or Thang Co.
Ethnic minorities' local market
The great harmony of tradition & modernization
Thanks to globalization, big cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh have become attractive destinations for international investment and been fostered to be cosmopolitan centers. Therefore, when traveling to these cities, visitors will have chances to admire the great combination of tradition and modernization. Hanoi, for instance, not only as the convergence of the political, cultural, historical, and social-economic quintessence built up over a thousand years of national construction of the Vietnamese nation, Hanoi attracts foreigners by its peace, fast-moving development and especially unique street food with Banh Mi. Also traveling to Hanoi you will have the chance to visit some of Vietnam’s symbols as well as take part in many different useful and interesting activities.
The heaven of unique cuisine from region to region: North - Central - South
Vietnam is divided into three regions so the different climate and nature make its cuisine diversified as well. Northern cuisine is sophisticated and delicate. It is tasteful, not too intense but colorful and is decorated carefully. Meanwhile, food in the Central of Vietnam is elegant. Finally, Southern cuisine is simple and luscious like honest locals - the simple way of life.
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2. Best tourist attractions for Vietnam Culture Tours
Having remained untouched by mass tourism, Ha Giang is an enchanting place for mountain discovery. The mountain ranges soar up as if they are going to kiss heaven.
With 90% of the population of ethnic minority groups, about 24 ethnic tribes, Hagiang distinctive lifestyle, and cultures. Hagiang is also renowned for its richness in cultures. You can pay a visit to some villages to explore the life of different ethnic groups such as Tay, Dao, Pu Peo, Nung, and Lo Lo. Khau Vai Love Market, Meo Vac, Sa Phin village, Ma Pi Leng Pass, and Hoang Su Phi town are the recommended places to visit.
Tay Nguyen (Central Highland)
Tay Nguyen is also famous for its high-valued cultures. The ethnic people here still well maintain their traditional lifestyle as well as cultural activities. The houses on stilts, heroic epics and the Space of Gong are what appear on our minds when talking about this area. Matriarchal society can be seen in some groups such as Ede and Mnong. Especially, the traditional music of the ethnic people, with unique musical instruments such as T’rung and Klong Put, is undoubtedly a huge appeal of Central Highlands in particular and Vietnam in general. Thanks to its high cultural value, Gong Culture has been recognized as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Don't forget Dalat "a little Paris in Vietnam".
Mekong Delta is in the South of Vietnam. It is different from the North and the Central of Vietnam in every single aspect from landscapes, weather, cuisine to lifestyle. Besides fruits orchards, yellow rice paddies, Southern folk songs and special regional cuisine, the vibrant floating market is what comes on tourists’ mind when talking about Mekong Delta.
3. Top experiences for Vietnam culture tours
Exploring Hanoi street food
Hanoi undoubtedly impresses all visitors by its unique and diversified cuisines, which can be considered as the most typical dishes of Vietnam cuisine and at very reasonable prices. It also represents the typical taste of Northern Vietnam's cuisine - delicate and sophisticated.
If you are an unapologetic foodie, the tailor-made food tour Hanoi will let you enjoy authentic Vietnam's cuisine with the help of a local chef. Or more interestingly, you can enjoy exploring a local market, where you pick your own ingredients before learning how to prepare popular street food dishes, such as Bun Cha (grilled pork patties with noodles), Pho (beef noodle), Ban Xeo (savory Vietnamese pancakes) and many more.
Enjoying the floating market in Mekong Delta
When traveling to Mekong Delta, you will have the chance to visit a lot of floating markets. Floating markets have long been an integral part of the lives of the locals in the Southwest from generation to generation. Spending their most lifetimes on rivers, people are used to living on floating boats. For them, floating boats can be not only their houses and but their place of trading fruits, food, agricultural products and many others as well.
Don't miss Cai Rang market (Can Tho Province), Cai Be Floating Market (Tien Giang Province), and Nga Bay Floating Market (Phung Hiep Floating Market).
Ethnic minorities' unique culture at Vietnam National Village for Ethnic Culture and Tourism
Vietnam is home to 54 ethnic groups, each of which has its own unique cultural identity creating Vietnam diversified culture. At the Vietnam National Village for Ethnic Culture and Tourism, ethnic minority people join State agencies and experts in preserving and introducing their communities’ cultural values to visitors. The village, located in the Dong Mo tourism area in Hanoi’s Son Tay town, is described as a “common home” of the 54 ethnic groups across the nation. It has a total area of 1,544ha with seven functional zones. Among them, the zone for ethnic minority villages is considered the heart of the culture-tourism village. So instead of traveling to remote areas, tourists can pay a visit to this place to explore Vietnam's 54 ethnic groups.
Visiting local markets
Apart from the hustle city life, riding to local markets of small villages in the countryside will be an interesting experience. Fresh air, beautiful landscapes and friendly locals will definitely save your trip. More excitingly, it's time for you to get closer to their lifestyle and the unique culture. Don't forget to make a bargain to avoid overcharging.
You can choose fresh products and learn to cook your own dishes in local families if you participate in some cooking tour as well.
Visiting traditional handicraft villages
If you wish to better understand about Vietnam's culture, Bat Trang Pottery Village, Van Phuc Silk Village, Thach Xa Bamboo Village – Making Bamboo Dragonfly or Dao Xa Village – Making Musical Instruments and Quat Dong Embroidery Village should be taken into consideration.
When traveling to these villages, you can see how popular handicrafts are made, and even make your own souvenirs for your friends.
Watching the puppet show
The puppet show in Hanoi reflects a highlight of Vietnam agricultural culture when shows vibrantly the local life from living, farming to cultivating the spiritual life via rituals or festivals.
Don't forget to enjoy this amazing show, your children will be excited.
4. Top city of cultures in Vietnam
Not only as the center of the political, cultural, historical, and social-economic quintessence built up over a thousand years of national construction of Vietnam, Hanoi, the capital is undoubtedly a must-see spot in your journey in Vietnam.
Right on the center of Hanoi, Hoan Kiem Lake or ‘Lake of the Returned Sword’ attracts visitors and locals looking to get away from the hustle and bustle of this modern city. Peaceful and quiet, and green water, the lake surrounded by plenty of trees and shaded spots make visitors more comfortable and relaxing.
Standing in the center on a small island of Hoan Kiem lake is ‘Turtle Tower’, which becomes Hanoi’s symbol as well as Vietnam’s with all Vietnamese people and tourists coming to our country.
The most noticeable evidence of 100 years of French colony’s influence is The Old Quarter where one of Hanoi’s most common sights is that of streets packed with bicycles or scooters and cars swarming around pedestrians like a school of fish.
Besides plentiful cultural relics, temples or pagodas, Hanoi also impresses tourists by many other scenes of fresh, green and peaceful beauty standing around all the city’s lakes and under high green trees with large shadows on sunny days such as West Lake, Truc Bach, Bay Mau Lake, etc.
Located along the banks of the Huong River, Hue, the regional economic, cultural, touristic, scientific, specialized health, education and training hub of central Viet Nam is an attractive destination with ancient spots covered by a layer of green moss creating a relaxing sensation.
Don't miss Hue Citadel, a World Cultural Heritage site recognized the by UNESCO in 1993.
Also trying all cuisines and specialties in Hue is such a great experience as it is famous for its delicate imperial cuisine. And, the affordable street food offered by vendors is also hard to resist. Let's taste “Com hen”, Bun Bo Hue and the heaven of cake here.
Despite just a small town in the mountainous northwest of Vietnam, Sapa has always been listed as one of the must-see destinations in Vietnam.
Coming to Sapa, tourists will be amazed by the magnificent mountains looming in front of their eyes. Steep hills, the golden rice terraces, and the marvelous mountain peaks are an irresistible appeal to visitors.
If you are an adventure-lover, Fansipan peak – the summit of Indochina crowned with a headdress of ice will be an amazing experience.
Besides enjoying the stunning landscapes, Sapa is also an ideal place to get closer to Vietnamese tribal groups such as H’ Mong, Tay, and Dao. Visiting the villages like Ta Van, Ta Phin or Cat Cat, following them to the rice terraces, or going to the local market and even making local dishes will be meaningful moments.
Some must-try dishes are Sapa Cap Nach Pigs, Thang Co, Khang Gai Dried Meat in Sapa, Sapa Fructus Crataegi Wine, Sapa Chinese Black Mushroom, Sapa Pau Play Day Cake and many more.
5. Vietnam’s tangible heritages
Listed as a New World Seven Wonders, what coming to visitors’ mind when thinking about Halong Bay is spectacular scatter of islands with towering limestone pillars and tiny islets topped by forest rise from the emerald waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. What is more astonishing than sitting on the boat, chatting with friends or family, sipping a wine and enjoying fresh seafood under the romantic night in Halong Bay?
One of the most satisfying things when coming to beaches and especially a world natural wonder is sunbathing and swimming. The clear blue water, white smooth sand beaches twinkling under the golden sunshine and fresh air create a wonderful landscape for swimming, sunbathing, snorkeling, fishing, or kayaking.
Also, numerous exciting activities like snorkeling, diving, swimming or sunbathing will definitely satisfy all visitors from kids to adults. Those who enjoy nature will love the view and appreciate its beauty. Or renting out a junk to stay overnight to just enjoy the quietness and beauty of Ha Long Bay is not a bad idea.
Moreover, taking a deeper discover into floating villages, visitors will find out a lot of interesting features of the daily life of Halong Bay’s locals. They live there and make ends meets from the diversified supply of marine life.
Last but not least, there is no better way to witness Halong Bay fantastic limestone karsts and caves from the seaplane. Just imagine how amazing it is when all famous islands, almost whole famous landscapes of Halong Bay like Dau Go Cave, Tuan Chau Island and so on will be in our eyes. But it is quite expensive, so consider carefully!
Thang Long Imperial Citadel
Thang Long Imperial Citadel was the political center of Vietnam for 13 consecutive centuries and considered as Vietnam's capital for eight centuries. Its highlight was the Hanoi Flag Tower, a renovated 40-meter-tall stone fortress offering expansive views of Ba Dinh Square and Hanoi City Centre. The Imperial Citadel of Thang Long was recognized as a World Heritage Site in 2010 for its intriguing relic of Vietnam’s history and, signifying its historical and cultural importance.
Archaeologists also found bronze coins, ceramics, and pottery from China and many places in Asia on top of these discoveries, all of which demonstrate a close trading relationship in the area.
Visitors should head for the display room that features interesting excavated items and mock-ups of the citadel itself. Therefore when traveling to this place, tourists will have opportunities to get closer to Hanoi's history in particular and Vietnam's culture in general.
Hoian ancient city
As one of the oldest cities in the country, Hoian attracts thousands and millions of tourists every year for its unique architectures, ancient streets perfectly dotted with unobtrusive street vendors in their Vietnamese silk pajamas. It is also the best place for foreigners to get a deeper understanding of Vietnamese lives, tradition, and customs.
Hoian is not just famous for its ancient beauty and beautiful landscapes recognized many times worldwide, but also for its authentic cuisine as one of the 25 most attractive destinations for foodies around the world. Do not forget that you are in a heaven of street food. Trying street food will bring you an interesting and unforgettable experience.
Don't miss Hoian Chicken Rice, Mi Quang, Cao Lau and White Rose in Hoian.
6. Vietnam's intangible heritages
Xoan singing of Phu Tho province, Vietnam
According to folk legends of Phu Tho, the art of Xoan Singing dates back to the time of Hung Kings (more than 2000 BC). It is not only to celebrate the kings, but also to pray for the rain, the lush harvest, the natural scenery, and good health in the countryside.
Xoan Singing has long become an invaluable cultural heritage of the people in the area of Phu Tho province in particular and in Vietnam in general. It is an art born in the cult of wet rice farming and on the land where many folk festivals are held annually in spring.
Often practiced on the seventh day of Lunar New Year in Hung Temple, Xoan Singing is a combination of poetry, music, singing, dancing and clapper beating. Three major types of Xoan Singing are recital melody (Hat Noi), chanting melody (Hat Ngam Ngoi) and praising melody (Hat Xuong).
At the 12th meeting of the UN Intergovernmental Commission on UNESCO in Jeju Island, UNESCO officially registered Phu Tho Xoan Singing as the intangible cultural heritage of human being. UNESCO appreciates the local effort to preserve, transmit and spread this precious heritage in the community due to the restoration of 33 clubs with over 1,000 Xoan lovers and hundreds of performing spaces.
Worship of Hung Kings in Phu Tho
Regarded as “dragon’s children and fairy’s grand-children”, Vietnamese people celebrate Hung Kings on 10th day of March according to Lunar Calendar as Ancestral Anniversary day to show Vietnamese’s concept “When drinking water, remember the source” and spirit of national solidarity.
The local often offer square cakes (Chung cake) and glutinous cakes (Giay cake) to the Hung Temple on Nghia Linh Mountain and organize the festival including reading petitions, praying, bronze drum beating and Xoan singing.
It was listed as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2012.
Space of Gong culture
It was originated from Central Highlands of Vietnam including Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Dak Lak, Dak Nong and Lam Dong and playing an important role in cultural identity of ethnic minorities like Ba Na, E De, M’Nong, Ro Man or Gia Rai, etc as they regard it as a means of communication with gods and deities and a representation for long-standing history through a thousand year of many communities.
In 2005, the Space of Gong culture was recognized as an oral-transmitted masterpiece and intangible cultural heritage of humanity by UNESCO.
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7. Vietnam Food Culture
It's for sure that when visiting a new land, in addition to which place to travel, how to arrive, any tips and tricks, that country's cuisine is also such a big concern.
Northern cuisine – delicate and sophisticated
Northern cuisine reflects a long-standing culture of over 4000 years. Coming to the rendezvous was the capital of many dynasties, and Hanoi was considered as the elite cuisine of the North with delicious dishes, especially the street food heaven like noodles, Bun Cha, Bun Bo, Pho Cuon or Nem and Che.
Northern cuisine is tasteful, not too intense but colorful and is decorated carefully. They mainly use diluted fish sauce, shrimp paste, numerous vegetables and easy-to-make freshwater fish such as shrimp, crab, fish, clams, mussels etc. And in general, due to the ancient tradition of poor farming, Northern cuisine was less prevalent with the main ingredients being meat and fish.
Northerners prefer tasty and eye-catching food to stimulate the taste buds. Besides, the northern dishes are also processed in a sophisticated way to make it more attractive.
The Middle of Vietnam – sophisticated and spicy cuisine
The Middle cuisine, especially Hue dish impresses us with the elegant taste and sophisticated decoration. The locals use spicier but less sweet flavors than the South. Especially Hue people, from the dishes for the common people or kings serve many dishes with spicy and especially the sour like tomato sauce or shrimp paste. They dedicate to the dishes and make the best ones.
Due to its climate, the Middle people always appreciate and turn their wonderful products into the flavor of food.
The Middle dish is personal, once you enjoy it, it will be such a memorable taste after the trip.
Southern Vietnam - Bold and Diverse cuisine
Southern cuisine is simple, but still luscious like honest locals, and just like the simple way of life. Southern dish is also diverse because of the interference of many regions and ethnic groups like Khmer. Southern people prefer the food to stimulate the taste (sweet, spicy, salty, sour, or bitter).
Interestingly, when thinking about Southern food, tourists often remember unique dishes with the flavor of coconut milk as the food is often accompanied by coconut juice to create more charming taste.
8. Best of Vietnam Culture Performance Show
Tinh Hoa Bac Bo (The Quintessence of Tonkin)
CNN voted “Tinh Hoa Bac Bo” as top must-see performance when visiting Hanoi in particular and Northern Vietnam in general.
The outdoor cultural spectacle is performed on the biggest water stage in Vietnam (4,300m2) and the largest number of peasant actors of Vietnam (150 peasant actors) which is permanently submerged under a thin layer of water.
The Quintessence of Tonkin reflects traditional elements of Vietnamese farming culture and a unique and memorable exploration of the Red River Delta, the heart of northern Vietnam in a contemporary and innovative way.
Price: Silver Ticket (VND 800,000) - Gold Ticket (VND 900,000) - Platinum Ticket (VND 1,200,000)
The Water Puppet show
The tradition of water puppet theatre originates from the fact that farmers' rice paddy fields were flooded and villagers show their optimism by standing in the waist-deep water with the puppets performing over the water. They use large rods to support the puppets it appeared as if they were moving across the water with the puppeteers hidden behind a screen.
Traditional music by drums, wooden bells, horns, bamboo flutes and cymbals are also used.
Address: Thang Long Water Puppet Theatre, 57B, Dinh Tien Hoang Street, Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi
Opening Hours: Daily 15:00, 16:10, 17:20, 18:30 & 20:00
Tel: +84 43 824 9494
Price Range: VND 100,000.
Vietnam's performing arts
Vietnam’s diversified and vibrant performing arts including theatrical, dance, and music culture are also definitely worth exploring.
It is about Vietnam’s oral traditions and folk stories. Hat Tuong, Cheo, Cai Luong and Water Puppetry are four most typical types of Vietnam's traditional theater.
- Hat Tuong: from China in the 13th century, & performed by traveling troupes to farmers and ordinary citizens, featuring famous characters.
- Hat Cheo: in Northern Vietnam, & performed by Vietnamese peasants in semi-amateur touring groups in the villages.
- Cai Luong: a form of modern folk opera featuring contemporary and historical themes, & accompanied by the Vietnamese traditional chamber music called Nhac Tai Tu.
- Water puppetry: from Red River Delta in Vietnam, & puppets moving in front of a bamboo screen and the puppeteers standing waist-deep in the water behind.
- Imperial Court Dance: from the Tran and Nguyen dynasties with extravagant costumes, & now performed in festivals. It is accompanied by imperial court music called Nha Nhac.
- Lion/ Dragon Dance: from China, & performed in festivals like the Mid-Autumn festival or Lunar New Year to ward off evil spirits.
Traditional Music Genre
- Nha Nhac: ‘Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity’ by UNESCO.
- Quan Ho: the genre of Vietnamese folk singing.
- Ca Tru: the ancient genre of chamber music, & as an ‘Intangible Cultural Heritage’ in need of urgent safeguarding by UNESCO.
9. Vietnamese Culture Symbols
Ao dai - The Elegant, Graceful and Charming National Dress of Vietnam
Dating back to as early as the 18th century, Ao Dai has become the traditional dress and unique symbol of the Vietnamese women. Despite ups and downs, Ao Dai reflects Vietnam cultural identity, national spirit and outstanding work of art – a distinctive and elegant beauty of Vietnam people.
Ao Dai has been modernized its appearance over the centuries, but its unique beautiful allure will never be out of date. As you can probably see, Áo Dài is not just a costume – it is the essence and the glory of the Vietnamese culture.
Ao Dai is made from the finest silk or other special types of soft fabrics to be charming and comfortable as well. The elegant and soft features of Ao Dai can also be regarded as the indirect symbols of Vietnam, a peace-loving country with a rich traditional culture.
Lotus - Vietnam national flower
When traveling to Vietnam, you can admire lotus throughout the country from the North to the South. Lotus flowers are beautiful in both appearance and smell. The color of lotus flowers usually are pink, white and purple, each color has different meaning but all of them have a pleasant smell.
Lotus is subtle, pure and beautiful, which makes it the most iconic symbol for culture and manners of the Vietnamese people.
Lotus is also a great ingredient, for instance, the young stems to make salads, the stamens to make herbal tea or the lotus seeds to cook the tasty sweet soup.
Non La – A Symbol of Vietnamese Charm and Romance
If Ao Dai reflects Vietnamese charming femininity, Non La represents the beautiful harmony of the entire ensemble with the unique gracefulness and romance to visitors.
Non La possesses several types since its original version thousands of years ago after making first appearance 3000 years ago. Vietnamese people use Non La flexibly such as a personal sun proof, a basket to shopping, a fan of a ploughman in hot summer days, or even a keepsake.
The image of a young lady wearing Non La and Ao dai is a beautiful symbol of Vietnam, so a lot of travellers enjoy taking Non La as a special gift from Vietnam.
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10. Vietnamese Culture Dance
Dragon/ Lion dance
In Vietnam culture, dragon is considered one of Vietnam's Four Sacred Animals (Dragon, Kỳ lân, Tortoise and Phoenix) with the extraordinary power and as the symbol of luck. The dragon dance originates from Vietnamese legend “Dragon and Fairy Descendant”.
The colorful and noisy Dragon or Lion Dance is usually performed on festivals and special occasions like Tet holiday (Lunar New Year) and Mid-Autumn festival for children. This dance is said to dispel evil and foster good luck to people.
Lotus Lantern dance
Lotus Lantern dance is also called Luc Cung Hoa Dang for over 500 years old. The lotus has become Vietnam national flower and an integral symbol for untold centuries. The Lotus Lantern Dance emphasizes the coolest aspect of lotus symbolization - the pure and graceful beauty from a muddy swamp.
2 dozen dancers will perform and each of them will hold 2 lotus-shaped lanterns. They make simple movements with the lanterns, but all of them are well-coordinated and form beautiful patterns. When you have chance to admire the lotus lantern dance, the big living kaleidoscope will be reflected lively.
Conical Hat (Non La) dance
As mentioned, Non La and Ao Dai have long been typical symbols of Vietnam. Non La reflects the grace and charm and can be used not only daily, but for performance as well. Therefore, Vietnamese daily routine is shown through the dance.
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11. Best museums for Vietnam Culture Tours
Vietnam Museum of Ethnology, Hanoi
Vietnam is home to 54 ethnic groups living through the country. However, if you wish to explore all their unique cultures and save time as well, let's come to the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology in Hanoi. 54 different ethnic minorities are depicted in Vietnam Museum of Ethnology to preserve cultural heritage and promote socio-cultural diversity within the country.
Vietnam Museum of Ethnology describes Vietnamese traditional lifestyle from religious events to rituals of all Vietnamese ethnic tribes, providing a rich tapestry of the culture melting pot existing in Vietnam.
Over 15,000 artifacts, photographs and even audio tapes are available. Virtual tour via indoor exhibition space including the Viet, Muong, Tho, Chut, Tav, Thai, Ka Dai, H’Mong-Dao, Tang, San Dui, Ngai, Mon-Khmer, Nam-Dao, Cham, Hoa and Khmer ethnic groups will be much more interesting.
The opening hour: 08:30 - 17:30, closed on Mondays
Location: Nguyen Van Huyen Street, Cau Giay, Hanoi
War Remnants Museum, Ho Chi Minh City
It first opened to the public in 1975 after the Independent Day. Once known as the ‘Museum of American War Crimes’, this museum is as a shocking reminder of the long and brutal Vietnam War under the colonies. Graphic photographs and American troops equipment remain on display such as a helicopter with rocket launchers, a tank, a fighter plane, a single-seater attack aircraft. A conventional 6,800kg bomb is also on display. All these weapons as used against the Vietnamese between 1945 and 1975.
The opening hours: Daily 07.30 - 12.00 & 13:30 – 17:00
Location: 28 Vo Van Tan, District 3, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts, Hanoi
This national museum is established to present and preserve the country’s artistic treasures. The museum is an artistic architecture, reflecting the great combination of old French style with traditional architectural elements of Vietnamese communal houses.
It was first opened to the public in 1966, featuring ‘fine arts’ like paintings and sculptures, but traditional arts like different forms of religious sculptures, folk paintings and ceramics as well. The Museum is also a place for contemplating great works of art produced by generations of artists whose life and work reflect the country’s major artistic achievements and historical landmarks of the 20th century.
Opening hour: 8.30 - 17.00.
Location: 66 Nguyen Thai Hoc Street, Ba Dinh District, Hanoi, Vietnam
There are a lot of interesting things when coming to Vietnam, but don't worry, if you have any query or need local help, please feel free to call us at VieGo to have an affordable, safe and local journey.